Industry Glossary

Accessorial Charges:

Charges made by a carrier for performing freight services beyond normal pickup and delivery, such as loading, unloading, and extra pickups.

Backhaul:

The return trip from the destination back to the origin.

Bill of Lading:

A document with details on the shipment of goods in the form of a receipt between the shipper and the carrier.

Bobtail:

A tractor operating without a trailer.

Bracing:

Securing items inside a vehicle to reduce or inhibit front to rear shifting of freight/cargo.

Claim:

A charge made against a carrier for overcharge, loss, or damage.

Class rate:

A rate composed of a uniform distance system and classification.

Consignee:

The receiver of a freight shipment, usually the buyer.

Consignor:

The sender of a freight shipment, usually a seller.

Container:

The standard-size rectangular box used to transport freight.

Cost per hundred weight (cwt):

The amount charged per hundred pounds of freight.

Detention:

Charge for when the shipper or receiver holds a truck or trailer beyond the time allowed for loading and unloading.

Doubles:

A tractor with two connected semi trailers.

Drayage:

A truck that operates locally.

Driver Assist:

When the driver is asked to help in loading or unloading. Also known as a “Tend to load”

Dry Van:

A non-refrigerated, non-insulated trailer.

Exclusive use:

A request made by the shipper to be the only freight in the trailer.

Expediting:

Attempting to speed up its delivery.

Flatbed:

A vehicle with a flat load-carrying area, with no roof or sides.

FOB:

“Free on Board” designation is used to indicate when liability and ownership of goods are transferred from a seller to a buyer.

Freight Pool:

A set of loaded trailers waiting for assignment to a driver and tractor.

Front-haul:

Initial shipment from the origin to the destination.

Full Truckload (FTL):

A load that occupying the entire trailer.

Gross Weight:

Total weight of the load, including packaging materials. Also known as a shipping weight.

Hazmat:

Hazardous materials that are regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Layover:

Delay preventing a driver from unloading as scheduled.

Less-than-truckload (LTL):

A partial load that occupies less than the entire trailer.

Motor Carrier (MC):

A company that provides truck transportation.

Multiple drops:

A delivery requiring more than one stop.

Net Weight:

The weight of goods being shipped, excluding packaging materials.

OS&D:

“Over, short and damaged”

Overage:

Piece count of a shipment is more than what is documented on the bill of lading.

Owner-operator:

The trucker who owns and operates their own truck.

P&D:

Pickup and delivery

Pallet:

Movable platform for storage or transportation of goods. Usually made of wood. Also known as a skid.

Payload:

The weight of the cargo being hauled.

Pro Number:

A number used by carriers to organize and track the progress of each shipment

Pup trailer:

Short semi trailer, usually between 26 and 32 feet long.

Reefer:

Refrigerated, insulated semi trailer.

Seal Number:

Security seals are mechanisms used to seal shipping containers in a way that provides tamper evidence and some level of security.

Shortage:

When the piece count of a shipment is less than what was documented on the bill of lading.

Split Pickup:

Pickup requiring more than one stop.

Tanker:

A tank trailer designed to handle fine bulk materials or liquids.

Tracing:

Deciding where the shipment is during the course of the move.

Weight per case:

The total weight per case, carton, or box.

NMFC Class Examples Weight/Cubic Foot
Class 50 Standard shrink-wrapped pallet over 50 lbs
Class 55 Bricks, cement, hardwood flooring 35-50 lbs
Class 60 Car accessories & car parts 30-35 lbs
Class 65 Bottled beverages, books 22.5-30 lbs
Class 70 Car parts, food items 15 to 22.5 lbs
Class 77.5 Tires, bathroom fixtures 13.5 to 15 lbs
Class 85 Crated machinery 12-13.5 lbs
Class 92.5 Computers, refrigerators 10.5-12 lbs
Class 100 Car covers, canvas 9-10.5 lbs
Class 110 Cabinets, framed artwork 8-9 lbs
Class 125 Small Household appliances 7-8 lbs
Class 150 Auto sheet metal parts 6-7 lbs
Class 175 Clothing 5-6 lbs
Class 200 Packaged mattresses 4-5 lbs
Class 250 Mattress and box spring 3-4 lbs
Class 300 Wood cabinets, tables 2-3 lbs
Class 400 Deer antlers 1-2 lbs
Class 500 Ping pong balls < 1 lbs